Genomic profiling studies have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of mature B-cell neoplasms and have identified markers with prognostic impact. Recurrent mutations in tumor-suppressor genes (TP53, BIRC3, ATM), and common signaling pathways, such as the B-cell receptor (CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, TCF3, ID3), Toll-like receptor (MYD88), NOTCH (NOTCH1/2), nuclear factor-κB, and mitogen activated kinase signaling, have been identified in B-cell neoplasms. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, hairy cell leukemia, and marginal zone lymphomas of splenic, nodal, and extranodal types represent examples of B-cell neoplasms in which novel molecular biomarkers have been discovered in recent years. In addition, ongoing retrospective correlative and prospective outcome studies have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the clinical utility of novel biomarkers. This progress is reflected in the 2016 update of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms, which lists as many as 41 mature B-cell neoplasms (including provisional categories). Consequently, molecular genetic studies are increasingly being applied for the clinical workup of many of these neoplasms. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic utility of molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.