RAS Proteins and Their Regulators in Human Disease

Cell. 2017 Jun 29;170(1):17-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.06.009.


RAS proteins are binary switches, cycling between ON and OFF states during signal transduction. These switches are normally tightly controlled, but in RAS-related diseases, such as cancer, RASopathies, and many psychiatric disorders, mutations in the RAS genes or their regulators render RAS proteins persistently active. The structural basis of the switch and many of the pathways that RAS controls are well known, but the precise mechanisms by which RAS proteins function are less clear. All RAS biology occurs in membranes: a precise understanding of RAS' interaction with membranes is essential to understand RAS action and to intervene in RAS-driven diseases.

Keywords: CRAFT; KRAS; KRAS therapies; NF1; RAF1; RAS effectors; RAS in the membrane; RAS proteins; RAS-driven cancer; RASopathies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Congenital Abnormalities / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Signal Transduction
  • Yeasts
  • ras Proteins / chemistry
  • ras Proteins / genetics
  • ras Proteins / metabolism*


  • ras Proteins