Human cDNAs coding for angiogenin, a human tumor derived angiogenesis factor, were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from human liver poly(A) mRNA employing a synthetic oligonucleotide as a hybridization probe. The largest cDNA insert (697 base pairs) contained a short 5'-noncoding sequence followed by a sequence coding for a signal peptide of 24 (or 22) amino acids, 369 nucleotides coding for the mature protein of 123 amino acids, a stop codon, a 3'-noncoding sequence of 175 nucleotides, and a poly(A) tail. The gene coding for human angiogenin was then isolated from a genomic lambda Charon 4A bacteriophage library employing the cDNA as a probe. The nucleotide sequence of the gene and the adjacent 5'- and 3'-flanking regions (4688 base pairs) was then determined. The coding and 3'-noncoding regions of the gene for human angiogenin were found to be free of introns, and the DNA sequence for the gene agreed well with that of the cDNA. The gene contained a potential TATA box in the 5' end in addition to two Alu repetitive sequences immediately flanking the 5' and 3' ends of the gene. The third Alu sequence was also found about 500 nucleotides downstream from the Alu sequence at the 3' end of the gene. The amino acid sequence of human angiogenin as predicted from the gene sequence was in complete agreement with that determined by amino acid sequence analysis. It is about 35% homologous with human pancreatic ribonuclease, and the amino acid residues that are essential for the activity of ribonuclease are also conserved in angiogenin. This provocative finding is thought to have important physiological implications.