The need for development of comprehensive therapeutic systems, (e.g., polymer-apatite composites) as a bone substitute material has previously been highlighted in many scientific reports. The aim of this study was to develop a new multifunctional composite based on hydroxyapatite porous granules doped with selenite ions (SeO₃2-) and a biodegradable branched copolymer-bisphosphonate conjugate as a promising bone substitute material for patients with bone tumours or bone metastasis. A series of biodegradable and branched copolymer matrices, adequate for delivery of bisphosphonate in the bone-deficient area were synthesized and physico-chemically and biologically (cyto- and genotoxicity assays) characterized. Branched copolymers were obtained using a hyperbranched bis-MPA polyester-16-hydroxyl initiator and Sn(Oct)₂, a (co)catalyst of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l,l-lactide (LLA) and ε-caprolactone (CL). A new amide bond was formed between the hydroxyl end groups of the synthesized copolymer carriers and an amine group of pamidronate (PAM)-the drug inhibiting bone resorption and osteoclast activity in bone. The dependence of the physico-chemical properties of the copolymer matrices on the kinetic release of PAM from the synthesized branched copolymer conjugate-coated hydroxyapatite granules doped with selenite ions was observed. Moreover, the correlation of these results with the hydrolytic degradation data of the synthesized matrices was evidenced. Therefore, the developed composite porous hydroxyapatite doped with SeO₃2- ions/biodegradable copolymer-PAM conjugate appears most attractive as a bone substitute material for cancer patients.
Keywords: composite; controlled release rate; drug delivery systems; hydroxyapatite; polyester carrier; polymer conjugate; selenium.