Carnosine is a dipeptide of β-alanine and histidine amino acids. It is widely present in muscle and brain tissues. Carnosine has been demonstrated to be an antioxidant agent that is beneficial in animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes are are generated from membrane fatty acid oxidation. The antioxidant potential and toxicity of salsolinol had been extensively studied in vivo and in vitro. The present study analyzed the protective effect of carnosine against Parkinson's disease in the salsolinol-induced rat brain and rat brain endothelial cells. Antioxidant and biochemical markers were determined in vitro and in vivo. Histopathological examination was completed in order to evaluate the protective effect of carnosine on the cellular architecture of salsolinol-induced brain tissue. In order to confirm the protective effect of carnosine further, it was also investigated at an in vitro level using rat brain endothelial cells. Fluorescence and confocal studies indicated reduced apoptosis in the endothelial cells of the rat brain tissue. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were renormalized following treatment with carnosine. In addition, carnosine treatment reduced mitochondria-derived ROS in the rat brain endothelial cells. These findings suggest that carnosine may be a therapeutic agent against salsolinol-induced Parkinson's.
Keywords: Parkinson's diseases; antioxidant enzymes; carnosine; histopathology; rats.