Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood. Approximately 40% of retinoblastomas are hereditary and due to germline mutations in the RB1 gene. Children with hereditary RB are also at risk for developing a midline intracranial tumor, most commonly pineoblastoma. We recommend intensive ocular screening for patients with germline RB1 mutations for retinoblastoma as well as neuroimaging for pineoblastoma surveillance. There is an approximately 20% risk of developing second primary cancers among individuals with hereditary RB, higher among those who received radiotherapy for their primary RB tumors. However, there is not yet a clear consensus on what, if any, screening protocol would be most appropriate and effective. Neuroblastoma (NB), an embryonal tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Prior studies suggest that about 2% of patients with NB have an underlying genetic predisposition that may have contributed to the development of NB. Germline mutations in ALK and PHOX2B account for most familial NB cases. However, other cancer predisposition syndromes, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, RASopathies, and others, may be associated with an increased risk for NB. No established protocols for NB surveillance currently exist. Here, we describe consensus recommendations on hereditary RB and NB from the AACR Childhood Cancer Predisposition Workshop. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); e98-e106. ©2017 AACRSee all articles in the online-only CCR Pediatric Oncology Series.
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.