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A New Parrot Taxon From the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico-its Position Within Genus Amazona Based on Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny

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A New Parrot Taxon From the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico-its Position Within Genus Amazona Based on Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny

Tony Silva et al. PeerJ.

Erratum in

Abstract

Parrots (Psittaciformes) are a diverse group of birds which need urgent protection. However, many taxa from this order have an unresolved status, which makes their conservation difficult. One species-rich parrot genus is Amazona, which is widely distributed in the New World. Here we describe a new Amazona form, which is endemic to the Yucatán Peninsula. This parrot is clearly separable from other Amazona species in eleven morphometric characters as well as call and behavior. The clear differences in these features imply that the parrot most likely represents a new species. In contrast to this, the phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial markers shows that this parrot groups with strong support within A. albifrons from Central America, which would suggest that it is a subspecies of A. albifrons. However, taken together tree topology tests and morphometric analyses, we can conclude that the new parrot represents a recently evolving species, whose taxonomic status should be further confirmed. This lineage diverged from its closest relative about 120,000 years ago and was subjected to accelerated morphological and behavioral changes like some other representatives of the genus Amazona. Our phylogenies, which are so far the most comprehensive for Amazona taxa enabled us to consider the most feasible scenarios about parrot colonization of the Greater and Lesser Antilles and Central America from South America mainland. The molecular dating of these migrations and diversification rate were correlated with climatic and geological events in the last five million years, giving an interesting insight into Amazon parrot phylogeography and their evolution in general.

Keywords: Blue-winged Amazon parrot; Mitochondrial markers; Phylogeny; Phylogeography; Psittaciformes; Species.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare there are no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Map of Yucatán Peninsula with the location of site (asterisk), where the new Amazona was found.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Illustration of the new Amazona.
Male holotype (A) and female paratype (B). Illustration by Juan García Venegas.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Head coloration in the male (A) and female (B) of the new Amazona in comparison to both sexes of congeners Amazona albifrons nana (C, male; D, female) and Amazona xantholora (E, male; F, female), also from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.
The three taxa are the smallest members of the genus Amazona. Illustrations by Juan García Venegas.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Photograph of the male holotype (C and A—individual on the right) and female paratype (B and A—individual on the left) of the new Amazona.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Photographs of the head of male holotype (A) and female paratype (B) of the new Amazona.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Open tails showing colored bands of male holotype (A) and female paratype (B) of the new Amazona.
Figure 7
Figure 7. Open upper (A) and underside of wing (B) of male holotype as well as open upper (C) and underside of wing (D) of female paratype of the new Amazona.
Figure 8
Figure 8. The plot of the two factor coordinates from Principal Component Analysis for Amazona parrots displaying red in the head from Mexico and Mesoamerica separated into sexes based on three metric parameters (length of wing chord, length of tail, culmen).
Symbols represented the same species were connected by dashed lines. The individual for A. autumnalis did not have assigned sex.
Figure 9
Figure 9. The plot of the two-factor coordinates from Principal Component Analysis for Amazona species displaying red head feathers from Mexico and Mesoamerica based on all morphometric features.
Figure 10
Figure 10. UPGMA dendrogram clustering parrot taxa according to five metric parameters (body weight and length, length of wing chord, tail and exposed culmen) and six morphological discrete characters (body weight, total length, length of wing chord, tail length, exposed culmen).
Numbers at nodes correspond to p-values expressed as percentages calculated using approximately unbiased test (AU) and bootstrap resampling (BP), respectively.
Figure 11
Figure 11. Comparison of example sonogram for the new taxon with two other Amazona parrots from Central America and closely related Amazona agilis from the Greater Antilles.
Figure 12
Figure 12. MrBayes maximum clade credibility tree for the concatenated alignment of genes for COI, 12S and 16S rRNA sequences from Amazona taxa and Pionus menstruus species (as outgroup). Numbers at nodes, in the order shown, correspond to: posterior probabilities estimated in MrBayes (MB) and PhyloBayes (PB), and bootstrap support values obtained in TreeFinder (TF) and RAxML (RM).
Values of the posterior probabilities and bootstrap percentages lower than 0.50 and 50%, respectively, were omitted or indicated by a dash “-”. CA, Central America parrots; GA, Greater Antillean parrots; LA, Lesser Antillean parrots; SA, South America parrots.
Figure 13
Figure 13. Alternative tree topologies assuming different placement of A. agilis (B and C) and the new Amazona (D, E, F) in comparison to the best found tree (A).
P-values of approximately unbiased (AU), Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) and weighted Shimodaira-Hasegawa (wSH) tests were shown. Only trees E and F are significantly worse than the best tree, whereas B, C and D cannot be rejected. SA, South America parrots; GA, Greater Antillean parrots; CA, Central America parrots.
Figure 14
Figure 14. Maximum clade credibility tree obtained in Beast for the concatenated alignment of genes for COI, 12S and 16S rRNA sequences from selected Amazona taxa and Pionus menstruus species (as outgroup).
Mean (in bold) ages as well as the 95% highest posterior density distributions (in parenthesis) are shown for particular nodes. CA, Central America parrots; GA, Greater Antillean parrots; LA, Lesser Antillean parrots; SA, South America parrots. The tree was compared with benthic δ18O curve according to Lisiecki & Raymo (2005) (A), the variance in the δ18O records (B) and the rate of new lineages’ origin (C). Arrows t1, t2 and t3 in C indicate times in which the speciation rate shifts to a new rate according to the best-fitting yule4rate model.

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Grant support

Studies were supported by the National Science Centre Poland (Narodowe Centrum Nauki, Polska) grant no. 2015/17/B/NZ8/02402. Publication costs were supported by the Wroclaw Center of Biotechnology program “The Leading National Research Center (KNOW) for years 2014-2018”. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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