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, 26 (2), 435-445

Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule, CORM-3, Modulates Alveolar Macrophage M1/M2 Phenotype in Vitro


Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule, CORM-3, Modulates Alveolar Macrophage M1/M2 Phenotype in Vitro

Hiroko Yamamoto-Oka et al. Inflammopharmacology.


Alveolar macrophages are key contributors to both the promotion and resolution of inflammation in the lung and are categorized into pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. The change in M1/M2 balance has been reported in various pulmonary diseases and is a target for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to assess the modulation of M1/M2 phenotype in alveolar macrophages by water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3). Rat alveolar macrophages (AM) (NR8383) in culture were stimulated with LPS (5 ng/ml)/IFN-γ (10 U/ml) or IL-4 (10 ng/ml)/IL-13 (10 ng/ml) to induce M1 and M2 phenotypes, respectively. Expression of M1 phenotype markers, iNOS and TNF-α, and M2 phenotype markers, CD206 and Ym-1, was assessed by western blotting after 1, 3, 6, or 24 h in the absence or presence of CORM-3 (0.15 mM) treatment. Inactive CORM-3 (iCORM-3) was used as a control. Treatment of naïve (unstimulated) AM with CORM-3 promoted progression of the M2 phenotype as evidenced by the increased expression of CD206 (at 1 h; 1.8-fold) and Ym-1 (at 3 h; 1.9-fold), respectively. Surprisingly, CORM-3 treatment also upregulated the expression of iNOS protein as assessed 6 h following stimulation of AM with CORM-3 (2.6-fold). On the contrary, CORM-3 effectively reduced LPS/IFN-γ-induced expression of iNOS protein (0.6-fold); however, it had no effect on TNF-α expression. Finally, CORM-3 acutely (1-3 h) upregulated CD206 (1.4-fold) and Ym-1 (1.6-fold) levels in IL-4-/IL-13-treated (M2-stimulus) macrophages. These findings indicate that CORM-3 modulates macrophage M1 and M2 phenotypes in vitro with respect to continuous suppression of iNOS expression in M1-polarized macrophages and transient (early-phase) upregulation of CD206 and Ym-1 proteins in M2-polarized macrophages.

Keywords: Alveolar macrophage; Carbon monoxide; Exogenous; M1 phenotype; M2 phenotype.

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