Validity of heart rate measurements by the Garmin Forerunner 225 at different walking intensities

J Med Eng Technol. 2017 Aug;41(6):480-485. doi: 10.1080/03091902.2017.1333166. Epub 2017 Jul 4.


The accuracy of wrist worn heart rate monitors based on photoplethysmography (PPG) is not fully clinically accepted. Therefore, we aimed to validate heart rate measurements of a commercially available PPG heart rate monitor, i.e. the Garmin Forerunner® 225. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women; mean age: 28 years) performed a treadmill protocol consisting of: five minutes sitting, five minutes standing, 10 minutes walking at 4 km/h, 10 minutes walking at a gradient of 5% and intensity of 4-6 metabolic equivalents (METs), 10 minutes walking at a gradient of 8% and intensity of seven METs or more. Walking speeds were individually determined. Walking bouts were separated by a standardised five minute rest period. Heart rate was measured as the average of the last three minutes standing and of each walking bout. A three lead patch-based electrocardiogram (ECG; Zensor®) was used as criterion method. Statistical analyses included Pearson's correlation (r), paired t-tests, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Bland?Altman plots. The mean values per three minutes of every condition did not differ significantly between the Garmin Forerunner® 225 and the Zensor®. RMSE was 3.01 beats per minute (bpm) or 2.89%. The Bland-Altman bias was 1.57 bpm. Limits of agreement (LoA) were wide, ranging from 32.53 to 29.40 bpm. However, Pearson's r ranged from 0.650 to 0.868 suggesting moderate to strong validity. Generally, mean heart rates, r values, RMSE and the Bland-Altman bias indicated good overall agreement in this sample of healthy adults, but wide LoA are making it difficult to trust individual measurements.

Keywords: Garmin; Validity; heart rate; photoplethysmography; sports watch.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Female
  • Fitness Trackers*
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Heart Rate Determination / instrumentation*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / instrumentation*
  • Photoplethysmography / instrumentation*
  • Physical Exertion / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Walking Speed / physiology*