For patients with type 1 diabetes, closed-loop delivery systems (CLS) combining an insulin pump, a glucose sensor and a dosing algorithm allowing a dynamic hormonal infusion have been shown to improve glucose control when compared with conventional therapy. Yet, reducing glucose excursion and simplification of prandial insulin doses remain a challenge. The objective of this literature review is to examine current meal-time strategies in the context of automated delivery systems in adults and children with type 1 diabetes. Current challenges and considerations for post-meal glucose control will also be discussed. Despite promising results with meal detection, the fully automated CLS has yet failed to provide comparable glucose control to CLS with carbohydrate-matched bolus in the post-meal period. The latter strategy has been efficient in controlling post-meal glucose using different algorithms and in various settings, but at the cost of a meal carbohydrate counting burden for patients. Further improvements in meal detection algorithms or simplified meal-priming boluses may represent interesting avenues. The greatest challenges remain in regards to the pharmacokinetic and dynamic profiles of available rapid insulins as well as sensor accuracy and lag-time. New and upcoming faster acting insulins could provide important benefits. Multi-hormone CLS (eg, dual-hormone combining insulin with glucagon or pramlintide) and adjunctive therapy (eg, GLP-1 and SGLT2 inhibitors) also represent promising options. Meal glucose control with the artificial pancreas remains an important challenge for which the optimal strategy is still to be determined.
Keywords: artificial pancreas; closed-loop; glycaemic control; insulin delivery; insulin therapy; type 1 diabetes.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.