Coccydynia: Tailbone Pain

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2017 Aug;28(3):539-549. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2017.03.006. Epub 2017 May 27.


Coccyx (tailbone) pain substantially decreases the quality of life for patients who suffer with this condition. Classic symptoms include midline pain located below the sacrum and above the anus. Symptoms are worse while sitting or during transitions from sitting to standing. Physical examination typically reveals focal tenderness during palpation of the coccyx. Diagnostic tests include radiographs. Advanced studies may include MRI, computerized tomography scans, or nuclear medicine bone scans. Treatments may include the use of cushions, medications by mouth, topical medications, local pain management injections, pelvic floor physical therapy, and (in rare cases) surgical removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy).

Keywords: Coccydynia; Coccygodynia; Coccyx; Coccyx pain; Pain; Tailbone; Tailbone pain.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coccyx / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Low Back Pain / diagnosis*
  • Low Back Pain / etiology
  • Pain
  • Pain Management*
  • Quality of Life
  • Radiography