Myostatin (Mstn) deficiency leads to skeletal muscle overgrowth and Mstn inhibition is considered as a promising treatment for muscle-wasting disorders. Mstn gene deletion in mice also causes metabolic changes with decreased mitochondria content, disturbance in mitochondrial respiratory function and increased muscle fatigability. However the impact of MSTN deficiency on these metabolic changes is not fully elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that lack of MSTN will alter skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition in relation with pronounced alterations in muscle function and metabolism. Indeed, phospholipids and in particular cardiolipin mostly present in the inner mitochondrial membrane, play a crucial role in mitochondria function and oxidative phosphorylation process. We observed that Mstn KO muscle had reduced fat membrane transporter levels (FAT/CD36, FABP3, FATP1 and FATP4) associated with decreased lipid oxidative pathway (citrate synthase and β-HAD activities) and impaired lipogenesis (decreased triglyceride and free fatty acid content), indicating a role of mstn in muscle lipid metabolism. We further analyzed phospholipid classes and fatty acid composition by chromatographic methods in muscle and mitochondrial membranes. Mstn KO mice showed increased levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids. We also demonstrated, in this phenotype, a reduction in cardiolipin proportion in mitochondrial membrane versus the proportion of others phospholipids, in relation with a decrease in the expression of phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase and cardiolipin synthase, enzymes involved in cardiolipin synthesis. These data illustrate the importance of lipids as a link by which MSTN deficiency can impact mitochondrial bioenergetics in skeletal muscle.
Keywords: Delta-9 desaturase; GDF-8; Neutral lipids; Phospholipids; Thin layer chromatography.
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