Fragility fractures and cardiovascular diseases often coincide. However, data on shared risk factors and markers are scarce. Our aim was to assess the independent associations of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels with the risk of fracture and cardiovascular outcomes (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac death) in older men. A cohort of 819 home-dwelling men aged 60 to 87 years was followed prospectively for 8 years. Serum OPG was measured at baseline by ELISA. Bone mineral density (BMD) at femoral neck and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) were assessed by DXA. Clinical risk factors and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) were assessed. The incident events (self-reported peripheral fractures and acute coronary syndrome, cardiac death reported by a proxy) confirmed by a health professional were retained for the statistical analysis. Incident vertebral fractures were assessed on lateral DXA scans after 4 and 8 years. Hazard risk (HR) was assessed using the Cox model. After adjustment for FRAX corrected for femoral neck BMD and TBS, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and prior falls, the risk of fracture was twofold higher in the highest versus the lowest OPG quartile (HR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.35 to 4.10). The risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture was higher in the highest versus the lowest OPG quartile (OR 2.76 [95% CI, 1.08 to 7.05] and HR 2.46 [95% CI, 1.23 to 4.92]). The risk of major osteoporotic fracture was higher in the fourth versus the first OPG quartile (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.16 to 5.10). The risk of cardiovascular outcome (adjusted for confounders) was higher in the highest versus the lowest OPG quartile (HR 3.93; 95% CI, 1.54 to 10.04). The risk of fracture and cardiovascular outcome was higher in the highest OPG quartile versus the lower quartiles combined (HR 2.06 [95% CI, 1.35 to 3.14] and HR 2.98 [95% CI, 1.60 to 5.54], respectively). In conclusion, in older men, higher serum OPG levels represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and fracture risk. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Keywords: CARDIOVASCULAR RISK; FRAGILITY FRACTURE; MAJOR OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURE; MEN; OSTEOPROTEGERIN.
© 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.