Error detection capability of a novel transmission detector: a validation study for online VMAT monitoring

Phys Med Biol. 2017 Sep 1;62(18):7440-7450. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa7dc7.


The purpose of this study was to characterize a new single large-area ionization chamber, the integral quality monitor system (iRT, Germany), for online and real-time beam monitoring. Signal stability, monitor unit (MU) linearity and dose rate dependence were investigated for static and arc deliveries and compared to independent ionization chamber measurements. The dose verification capability of the transmission detector system was evaluated by comparing calculated and measured detector signals for 15 volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The error detection sensitivity was tested by introducing MLC position and linac output errors. Deviations in dose distributions between the original and error-induced plans were compared in terms of detector signal deviation, dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics and 2D γ-evaluation (2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm). The detector signal is linearly dependent on linac output and shows negligible (<0.4%) dose rate dependence up to 460 MU min-1. Signal stability is within 1% for cumulative detector output; substantial variations were observed for the segment-by-segment signal. Calculated versus measured cumulative signal deviations ranged from -0.16%-2.25%. DVH, mean 2D γ-value and detector signal evaluations showed increasing deviations with regard to the respective reference with growing MLC and dose output errors; good correlation between DVH metrics and detector signal deviation was found (e.g. PTV D mean: R 2 = 0.97). Positional MLC errors of 1 mm and errors in linac output of 2% were identified with the transmission detector system. The extensive tests performed in this investigation show that the new transmission detector provides a stable and sensitive cumulative signal output and is suitable for beam monitoring during patient treatment.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Particle Accelerators / instrumentation*
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care / standards*
  • Radiometry
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
  • Radiotherapy Setup Errors / prevention & control*
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / instrumentation*
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / standards*