Evidence for corticotropin-releasing factor, neurotensin, and somatostatin in the neural pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the parabrachial nucleus

J Comp Neurol. 1985 Nov 15;241(3):275-84. doi: 10.1002/cne.902410304.


The central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) and the parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PBN) are included within a group of brain nuclei involved in autonomic responses. Previous studies have shown that the CNA sends a considerable projection to the PBN and that both nuclei contain neurons immunoreactive to many different peptides. In the present study, we used the combined retrograde fluorescence-immunofluorescence method to determine whether the CNA projection to the PBN contains any of the following neuropeptides: corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), neurotensin (NT), somatostatin (SS), and enkephalin (ENK). Following injections of fluorescent dye into the PBN, neurons within both lateral and medial subdivisions of the CNA were retrogradely labeled. A significant percentage of CRF (54-66%)-, NT (40-53%)-, and SS (31-50%)-immunoreactive neurons were retrogradely labeled, predominantly within the lateral CNA. Enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons were never retrogradely labeled, although they were often found adjacent to retrogradely labeled neurons. Our results show that the lateral CNA is a major source of CRF, NT, and SS terminals within the PBN. Neurons in the medial CNA also provide a significant contribution to the CNA-PBN pathway, but their chemical nature remains to be determined. We conclude that CRF, NT, and SS are important putative neurotransmitters in the CNA's regulation of PBN function. This CNA-PBN peptidergic pathway may participate in stress-related cardiovascular and respiratory responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amygdala / analysis*
  • Amygdala / cytology
  • Animals
  • Cell Count
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / analysis
  • Enkephalins / analysis
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Male
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis*
  • Neural Pathways / analysis
  • Neurons / analysis*
  • Neurotensin / analysis
  • Pons / analysis*
  • Pons / cytology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Somatostatin / analysis


  • Enkephalins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Neurotensin
  • Somatostatin
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone