Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the best probiotic supplementation in triple therapy for pediatric population with Helicobacter pylori infection.
Methods: Eligible trials were identified by comprehensive searches. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals and relative ranks with P scores were assessed.
Results: Twenty-nine trials (3122 participants) involving 17 probiotic regimens were identified. Compared with placebo, probiotic-supplemented triple therapy significantly increased H. pylori eradication rates (relative ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.25) and reduced the incidence of total side effects (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.38-0.65). Furthermore, to supplemented triple therapy, Lactobacillus casei was identified the best for H. pylori eradication rates (P score = 0.84), and multi-strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for total side effects (P score = 0.93). As for the subtypes of side effects, multi-strain of Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, L. acidophilus, L. casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, L. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus sporogenes, and Streptococcus thermophilus was the best to reduce the incidence of diarrhea; multi-strain of Bacillus mesentericus, Clostridium butyricum, and Streptococcus faecalis for loss of appetite; multi-strain of B. longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and S. thermophilus for constipation; multi-strain of Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. infantis, L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. reuteri, and Streptococcus for taste disturbance; Saccharomyces boulardii for bloating; and multi-strain of Bifidobacterium breve, B. infantis, L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, and S. thermophilus for nausea/vomiting.
Conclusions: Probiotics are recommended to supplement triple therapy in pediatrics, and the effectiveness of triple therapy is associated with specific probiotic supplementation.
Keywords: Children; Efficacy; Helicobacter pylori; Network meta-analysis; Probiotics; Safety.