Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer chemoprevention: A role for nicotinamide?

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2018 Jan;34(1):5-12. doi: 10.1111/phpp.12328. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Abstract

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes DNA damage in melanocytes by producing photolesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine. The production of reactive oxygen species by UVR also induces inflammatory cytokines that, together with the inherent immunosuppressive properties of UVR, propagate carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3 ) enhances DNA repair, modulates the inflammatory environment produced by UVR, and reduces UV-induced immunosuppression. As nicotinamide reduces the incidence of actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancers in high-risk individuals and enhances repair of DNA damage in melanocytes, it is a promising agent for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high-risk populations.

Keywords: niacinamide; nicotinamide; skin cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell / prevention & control*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control*
  • DNA Repair / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulation / drug effects
  • Melanoma / prevention & control*
  • Niacinamide / pharmacology
  • Niacinamide / therapeutic use*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Vitamin B Complex / pharmacology
  • Vitamin B Complex / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Vitamin B Complex
  • Niacinamide