[Cardio-renal Axis: Pathophysiological Evidences and Clinical Implications]

G Ital Nefrol. 2017 Mar;34(Suppl 69):4-10.
[Article in Italian]


According to the recent definition proposed by the Consensus conference on Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group, the term cardio-renal syndrome CRS has been used to define different clinical conditions in which heart and kidney dysfunction overlap. Type 1 CRS acute cardio - renal syndrome is characterized by acute worsening of cardiac function leading to AKI in the setting of active cardiac disease such as ADHF, while type - 2 CRS occurs in a setting of chronic heart disease. Type 3 CRS is closely link to acute kidney injury, while type 4 represent cardiovascular involvement in chronic kidney disese patients. Type 5 CRS represent cardiac and renal involvement in several diseases such as sepsis, hepato - renal syndrome and immune - mediated diseases.

Keywords: Cardiorenal syndrome; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; heart failure.

MeSH terms

  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / classification*
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Humans