Womb transplants with live births: an update and the future

Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2017 Sep;17(9):1105-1112. doi: 10.1080/14712598.2017.1347633. Epub 2017 Jul 6.


Absolute uterine factor infertility, with a uterine absence or presence of a nonfunctional uterus, has during the last decades been the only remaining, major group of female infertility. Uterus transplantation (UTx) has now emerged as the first therapy for these women that have traditionally been regarded as unconditionally infertile. Areas covered: This review summarizes the research preparations in several experimental animal species that paved the way for the clinical introduction of UTx. The article also describes the human UTx attempts that have been reported up until today and the several live births that have occurred after the initial UTx baby was born in 2014. Future developments in human UTx and efforts to create a bioengineered uterus are also discussed. Expert opinion: UTx has already at this early phase of experimental introduction in the human setting proved to be a highly effective treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility. The UTx procedure has now been introduced at several centers worldwide within clinical research studies and with variations in techniques. The outcome and data from these studies will further optimize the UTx procedure to become a safe and highly effective infertility treatment.

Keywords: Human; infertility; transplantation; uterus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Female
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Infertility, Female / therapy*
  • Live Birth*
  • Pregnancy
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • Uterus / transplantation*


  • Immunosuppressive Agents