Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

Nutrients. 2017 Jul 6;9(7):697. doi: 10.3390/nu9070697.


Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain") study, n = 2009 (9-75 years old). The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) protocol. A validated, photo-based three-day food record was used to collect the data. Mean (max-min) reported intake for the whole population of zinc was 8.1 ± 0.1 mg/day, (2.3-27.3 mg/day), selenium 75 ± 1 µg/day, (14-265 µg/day), vitamin A 668 µg RE/day (2-11,017 µg RE/day), retinol 364 ± 18 µg/day (0-10,881 µg/day), carotenes 1735 ± 35 µg/day (13-13,962 µg/day), vitamin E 7.0 ± 0.1 mg α-TE/day (0.7-55.2 mg α-TE/day) and vitamin C 84.4 ± 1.4 mg/day (5.0-802.7 mg/day). The main source intakes for zinc were meat and meat products, for selenium cereals and grains, for vitamin E oils and fat, and for vitamin A and C vegetables. There is an elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the EFSA recommended intakes for all analysed micronutrients: zinc (83%), vitamin A (60%), vitamin E (80%), vitamin C (36%) and selenium (25%).

Keywords: ANIBES study; food intake; misreporting; trace elements; vitamins.

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Diet Records
  • Diet Surveys*
  • Female
  • Food / classification
  • Food Analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meat
  • Selenium*
  • Spain
  • Vegetables
  • Vitamin A / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin E / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin K
  • Zinc*


  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin E
  • Selenium
  • Zinc
  • Ascorbic Acid