This study elucidates the question of whether chronic inflammation in the jawbone contributes to the development of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Fatty degenerative osteonecrosis in jawbone (FDOJ) may contribute to CFS by induction of inflammatory mediators. We examined seven cytokines by multiplex analysis in jawbone samples from two groups of patients. In order to clarify neurological interrelations, specimens from 21 CFS patients were analyzed from areas of previous surgery in the retromolar wisdom tooth area. Each of the retromolar jawbone samples showed clinically fatty degenerated and osteonecrotic medullary changes. As control, healthy jawbone specimens from 19 healthy patients were analyzed. All fatty necrotic and osteolytic jawbone (FDOJ) samples showed high expression of RANTES and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. FDOJ cohorts showed a 30-fold mean overexpression of RANTES and a 20-fold overexpressed level of FGF-2 when compared to healthy controls. As RANTES is discussed in the literature as a possible contributor to inflammatory diseases, we hypothesize that FDOJ in areas of improper and incomplete wound healing in the jawbone may hyperactivate signaling pathways. Constituting a hidden source of silent inflammation FDOJ may represent a hitherto unknown cause for the development of CFS.