Chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of carob pods and leaves (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on the gastrointestinal tract: A review

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Sep:93:522-528. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.088. Epub 2017 Jul 4.


Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L., is a medicinal plant used in Tunisian traditional medicine for the treatment of the gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders. In this respect, a relatively large number of scientific publications on the carob tree have been published in recent years. Therefore, the present review was aimed to analyze the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Ceratonia siliqua on the GI tract. Indeed, previous investigations on the carob pods and leaves have revealed the presence of a number of compounds including high amounts of carbohydrates, dietary fibers, minerals, polyphenols, flavonoids and low amounts of protein and lipids. This plant possesses anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheique, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, anti-constipation and anti-absorptive of glucose activities in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of C. siliqua, we concluded that this species has beneficial preventive and therapeutic properties, especially, in digestive tract.

Keywords: Ceratonia siliqua l; Gastrointestinal tract; Pharmacological activities; Phytochemical constituents.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Galactans / chemistry*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Humans
  • Mannans / chemistry*
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology*
  • Phytochemicals / toxicity
  • Plant Gums / chemistry*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry*
  • Seeds / chemistry*


  • Galactans
  • Mannans
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Gums
  • locust bean gum