Global prevalence of hypertension among people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis

J Am Soc Hypertens. 2017 Aug;11(8):530-540. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.06.004. Epub 2017 Jun 21.


The purpose of this study was to estimate, through meta-analysis, the global prevalence of hypertension among people living with HIV (PLWH). A total of 49 studies published during 2011-2016 with 63,554 participants were included in analysis. These studies were conducted in America (25), Europe (13), Africa (10), and Asia (1) with data collected during 1996-2014. Prevalence of hypertension and confidence interval was estimated and stratified by participants' age, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and calendar-years using random effects modeling. The quality assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Prevalence Critical Appraisal Tool was high for all included studies. The estimated prevalence (95% confidence interval) of hypertension was 25.2% (21.2%, 29.6%) for the overall sample, 34.7% (27.4%, 42.8%) for ART-experienced, and 12.7% (7.4%, 20.8%) for ART-naïve participants. The estimated prevalence was found increased with age and in studies conducted after 2010. Hypertension among PLWH shows an increasing trend and is associated with receiving ART and older age. Findings of this study provide data for decision makers to incorporate blood pressure assessment in primary prevention and for researchers to further investigate factors and mechanisms related to hypertension among PLWH.

Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy; HIV-positive people; high blood pressure.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Africa / epidemiology
  • Age Factors
  • Americas / epidemiology
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / adverse effects*
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Hypertension / prevention & control
  • Prevalence


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents