The insertion torque-depth curve integral as a measure of implant primary stability: An in vitro study on polyurethane foam blocks

J Prosthet Dent. 2018 Nov;120(5):706-714. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 Jul 8.


Statement of problem: Recent research has shown that dynamic parameters correlate with insertion energy-that is, the total work needed to place an implant into its site-might convey more reliable information concerning immediate implant primary stability at insertion than the commonly used insertion torque (IT), the reverse torque (RT), or the implant stability quotient (ISQ). Yet knowledge on these dynamic parameters is still limited.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether an energy-related parameter, the torque-depth curve integral (I), could be a reliable measure of primary stability. This was done by assessing if (I) measurement was operator-independent, by investigating its correlation with other known primary stability parameters (IT, RT, or ISQ) by quantifying the (I) average error and correlating (I), IT, RT, and ISQ variations with bone density.

Material and methods: Five operators placed 200 implants in polyurethane foam blocks of different densities using a micromotor that calculated the (I) during implant placement. Primary implant stability was assessed by measuring the ISQ, IT, and RT. ANOVA tests were used to evaluate whether measurements were operator independent (P>.05 in all cases). A correlation analysis was performed between (I) and IT, ISQ, and RT. The (I) average error was calculated and compared with that of the other parameters by ANOVA. (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density plots were drawn, and their slopes were compared by ANCOVA.

Results: The (I) measurements were operator independent and correlated with IT, ISQ, and RT. The average error of these parameters was not significantly different (P>.05 in all cases). The (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density curves were linear in the 0.16 to 0.49 g/cm³ range, with the (I)-density curves having a significantly greater slope than those regarding the other parameters (P≤.001 in all cases).

Conclusions: The torque-depth curve integral (I) provides a reliable assessment of primary stability and shows a greater sensitivity to density variations than other known primary stability parameters.

MeSH terms

  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Prosthesis Retention
  • Dental Stress Analysis
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Mechanical Phenomena
  • Polyurethanes
  • Surface Properties
  • Torque


  • Dental Implants
  • Polyurethanes
  • polyurethane foam