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, 5 (7), E653-E662

Evaluation of the Bleeding Risk With Various Antithrombotic Therapies After Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection


Evaluation of the Bleeding Risk With Various Antithrombotic Therapies After Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

Tatsuhiro Gotoda et al. Endosc Int Open.


Background and study aims : Patients receiving antithrombotic drugs have a higher risk of postoperative bleeding and thromboembolic events related to endoscopic procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between various antithrombotic therapies and bleeding after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) (post-ESD bleeding).

Patients and methods: Among 529 consecutive gastric ESD procedures (483 patients with 579 legions), 100 patients with 121 lesions who underwent 108 procedures were on antithrombotic therapy (group A) and 382 patients with 458 lesions who underwent 421 procedures were not on antithrombotic therapy (group B). The ratio of post-ESD bleeding between the two groups and the bleeding risk related to various antithrombotic therapies were investigated.

Results : Postoperative bleeding was more frequent in group A (11.1 %) than in group B (3.3 %). No thromboembolic events were reported in either group. Further investigation of antithrombotic therapies in group A demonstrated that various combinations of antithrombotic agents and heparin replacement were associated with a higher ratio of post-ESD bleeding. Multivariate analyses revealed that dual antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio [OR] 10.9, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.1 - 49.5; P = 0.005) and heparin replacement (OR 34.4, 95 %CI 9.4 - 133.2; P < 0.001) were associated with the increased risk of post-ESD bleeding. In patients on antiplatelet therapy, post-ESD bleeding tended to occur in the early postoperative period compared with patients on anticoagulant therapy.

Conclusions: It is necessary to be cautious regarding post-ESD bleeding in patients requiring antithrombotic therapy, especially patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy and heparin replacement. A further prospective study with a large sample will be needed to confirm these findings.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests None


Supplementary Fig. 1
Supplementary Fig. 1
Protocol for endoscopic submucosal dissection. The protocol for ESD procedure including the management of various antithrombotic therapies is shown. ESD, endoscopic submucosal dissection; EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy; PPI, proton-pump inhibitor; LDA, low-dose aspirin.

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