Purpose of review: Thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends have been identified as being consistent with overdiagnosis, and several recent efforts have been made to mitigate this problem.
Recent findings: Major guidelines for thyroid nodule management recommend against general biopsy of nodules less than 1 cm in size. Data supporting the safety of active surveillance of low-risk thyroid cancers is now recognized. Tumors previously labeled as encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid cancers are now recommended to be called noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features.
Summary: Workup, diagnostic, and management of papillary thyroid cancer are changing rapidly to accommodate the recognition that many thyroid cancers are low risk and do not require aggressive, immediate intervention.