Comparative cyto-histological study of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after intravitreal injection using different needle types

PLoS One. 2017 Jul 10;12(7):e0174467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174467. eCollection 2017.


A comparison of the cellular content of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after transconjunctival intravitreal injection (IVI) using different needle types was performed. White outbred rats and human cadaver eyes were used for IVI by hypodermic 27 gauge (G) and 30G needles, and spinal anesthesia Pencan 27G needles. Aspiration of vitreous for quantitative morphological and cell cultivation analysis, as well as cyto-histological analysis of aspirates and entry sites were carried out. The most common cells in the aspirates from all needle types were conjunctival epithelial-, ciliary body non-pigmented epithelial- and sclerocyte-like cells and granular proteins. Crystallized vitreous specimens were present in each aspirate. The entry sites of hypodermic needles showed marked trauma in all wall layers of rat and human eyes accompanied by cellular destruction and hemorrhages. Pencan 27G needle caused less tissue trauma with partial reposition of sclerocytes. Transconjunctival IVIs with hypodermic 27G and 30G, and Pencan 27G needles result in trauma of all layers of the eyeball. The possible consequences of cellular content being cut and injected into the eye, as well as the entry site wound shape deserve future consideration and improvements.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Cadaver
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Conjunctiva / pathology
  • Eye / metabolism
  • Eye / pathology*
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections*
  • Needles*
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Vitreous Body / pathology


  • Eye Proteins

Grants and funding

The authors received no specific funding for this work.