Microbial metabolites are associated with a high adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern using a 1H-NMR-based untargeted metabolomics approach

J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Oct:48:36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Abstract

The study of biomarkers of dietary patterns including the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is scarce and could improve the assessment of these patterns. Moreover, it could provide a better understanding of health benefits of dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology. We aimed to determine a robust and accurate biomarker associated with a high adherence to a MedDiet pattern that included dietary assessment and its biological effect. In this cross-sectional study, we included 56 and 63 individuals with high (H-MDA) and low (L-MDA) MedDiet adherence categories, respectively, all from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea trial. A 1H-NMR-based untargeted metabolomics approach was applied to urine samples. Multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to determine the metabolite differences between groups. A stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to build and evaluate the prediction model for H-MDA. Thirty-four metabolites were identified as discriminant between H-MDA and L-MDA. The fingerprint associated with H-MDA included higher excretion of proline betaine and phenylacetylglutamine, among others, and decreased amounts of metabolites related to glucose metabolism. Three microbial metabolites - phenylacetylglutamine, p-cresol and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate - were included in the prediction model of H-MDA (95% specificity, 95% sensitivity and 97% area under the curve). The model composed of microbial metabolites was the biomarker that defined high adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The overall metabolite profiling identified reflects the metabolic modulation produced by H-MDA. The proposed biomarker may be a better tool for assessing and aiding nutritional epidemiology in future associations between H-MDA and the prevention or amelioration of chronic diseases.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Dietary patterns; High adherence; Mediterranean diet; Metabolomics; Microbiota.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / urine*
  • Cresols / urine
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet, Mediterranean*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology*
  • Glutamine / analogs & derivatives
  • Glutamine / urine
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Metabolomics / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenylacetates / urine
  • ROC Curve

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Cresols
  • Phenylacetates
  • Glutamine
  • 4-cresol
  • 4-hydroxyphenylacetate
  • phenylacetylglutamine