The impact of sociodemographic factors and PSA screening among low-income Black and White men: data from the Southern Community Cohort Study

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017 Dec;20(4):424-429. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2017.32. Epub 2017 Jul 11.


Background: Variation in PSA screening is a potential source of disparity in prostate cancer survival, particularly among underserved populations. We sought to examine the impact of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on receipt of PSA testing among low-income men.

Methods: Black (n=22 167) and White (n=9588) men aged ⩾40 years completed a baseline questionnaire from 2002 to 2009 as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Men reported whether they had ever received PSA testing and had testing within the prior 12 months. To evaluate the associations between SES, race and receipt of PSA testing, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from the multivariable logistic models where age, household income, insurance status, marital status, body mass index and educational level were adjusted.

Results: Black men were younger, had a lower income, less attained education and were more likely to be unmarried and uninsured (all P<0.001). Percentages of men having ever received PSA testing rose from <40% under the age of 45 years to ~90% above the age of 65 years, with Whites >50 more likely than Blacks to have received testing. Lower SES was significantly associated with less receipt of PSA testing in both groups. After adjustment for SES, White men had significantly lower odds of PSA testing (OR 0.81; 95% CI: 0.76-0.87).

Conclusions: Greater PSA testing among White than Black men over the age of 50 years in this low-income population appears to be mainly a consequence of SES. Strategies for PSA screening may benefit from tailoring to the social circumstances of the men being screened.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Black or African American
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / economics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Socioeconomic Factors*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology
  • White People


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen