Effect of Early and Prophylactic Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Flare Duration in Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: An Observational Study of Patients Followed by an Academic Community-Based Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Clinic

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017 Sep;27(7):619-628. doi: 10.1089/cap.2016.0193. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Abstract

Introduction: Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by the sudden onset of severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or eating restriction along with at least two coinciding neuropsychiatric symptoms. When associated with group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). An abnormal immune response to infection and subsequent neuroinflammation is postulated to play an etiologic role. We evaluated the impact of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment on flare duration in PANS/PANDAS.

Methods: Patient inclusion criteria: Patients were included if they had at least one neuropsychiatric deterioration ("flare") that met strict PANS/PANDAS research criteria and for which flare duration could be assessed. Flare inclusion criteria: Any flare that started before October 15, 2016 was included and followed until the flare resolved or until the end of our data collection (November 1, 2016). Flare exclusion criteria: Flares were excluded if they were incompletely resolved, treated with aggressive immunomodulation, or treated with NSAIDs late (>30 days of flare onset). Ninety-five patients met study inclusion criteria and collectively experienced 390 flares that met flare criteria. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear models, adjusting for demographics, disease, and treatment covariates.

Results: NSAID use was associated with a significantly shorter flare duration. Flares not treated with NSAIDs had a mean duration of approximately 12.2 weeks (95% CI: 9.3-15.1). Flares that occurred while the child was on NSAID maintenance therapy were approximately 4 weeks shorter than flares not managed with NSAIDs (95% CI: 1.85-6.24; p < 0.0001). Flares treated with NSAIDs within 30 days of flare onset were approximately 2.6 weeks shorter than flares not managed with NSAIDs (95% CI: 0.43-4.68; p = 0.02). Flares treated prophylactically and those treated early with NSAIDs did not differ in duration (p = 0.26). Among the flares that received NSAID treatment within the first 30 days, earlier intervention was modestly associated with shorter flare durations (i.e., for each day that NSAID treatment was delayed, flare duration increased by 0.18 weeks; 95% CI: 0.03-0.33; p = 0.02), though it was not statistically significant after controlling for covariates (p = 0.06).

Conclusion: NSAIDs given prophylactically or within 30 days of flare onset may shorten neuropsychiatric symptom duration in patients with new-onset and relapsing/remitting PANS and PANDAS. A randomized placebo-control clinical trial of NSAIDs in PANS is warranted to formally assess treatment efficacy.

Keywords: NSAIDs; PANDAS; PANS.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adolescent
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis
  • Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Child Behavior Disorders / diagnosis
  • Child Behavior Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Child Behavior Disorders / epidemiology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Community Health Services / methods
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / epidemiology
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / drug therapy
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / epidemiology
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Streptococcal Infections / diagnosis
  • Streptococcal Infections / drug therapy*
  • Streptococcal Infections / epidemiology
  • Symptom Flare Up*
  • Syndrome

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal