Distribution of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North America, 1956-1984

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986 Mar;35(2):429-43. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1986.35.429.


We attempted to tabulate all Bunyamwera serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) isolates from North America. By summarizing information from the laboratories of the Centers for Disease Control, data generously shared by other laboratories, and the published literature, we were able to accumulate data regarding 1,372 Bunyamwera serogroup viruses. These were: Tensaw (664, including 8 from vertebrates), Cache Valley (396, including 6 from vertebrates), Main Drain (160, including 14 from vertebrates), Lokern (69, including 8 from vertebrates), Northway (13, including 5 from vertebrates), Tlacotalpan (7), Santa Rosa (2), Santa Cruz (1 from a horse), and 60 of undetermined serotype. Virus isolation rates by month of collection were correlated with collection efforts, but associations of viruses and arthropod vectors varied by location, vertebrate host, and arthropod distribution. Tensaw virus was isolated principally from Anopheles crucians mosquitoes (466/656 isolates from arthropods) in the southeastern United States; Cache Valley virus principally from An. quadrimaculatus (94), Coquillettidia perturbans (59), Culiseta inornata (45), Aedes sollicitans (30), Psorophora columbiae (23), An. punctipennis (18), and Ae. vexans and trivittatus (18 each) mosquitoes (total = 305/382 isolates from arthropods from all of the United States and Canada, except the southeastern United States); Main Drain virus from Culicoides variipennis (31), Culicoides (Selfia) sp. (65), and Psorophora (23) and Aedes (21) species mosquitoes in the western United States; Lokern virus from Culicoides species (55/61 isolates from arthropods) in the western United States. Relationships between vector and vertebrate host distributions are discussed briefly in regard to geographic distribution of the Bunyamwera serogroup viruses.

MeSH terms

  • Aedes / microbiology
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic / microbiology
  • Animals, Wild / microbiology
  • Anopheles / microbiology
  • Bunyaviridae / classification
  • Bunyaviridae / isolation & purification*
  • Bunyaviridae Infections / microbiology
  • Ceratopogonidae / microbiology
  • Culicidae / microbiology
  • Humans
  • North America
  • Seasons
  • Serotyping
  • United States