Perinatal Outcomes of Non-Primary Maternal Cytomegalovirus Infection: A 15-Year Experience

Fetal Diagn Ther. 2018;43(2):138-142. doi: 10.1159/000477168. Epub 2017 Jul 12.


Objective: To evaluate perinatal outcomes in case of non-primary maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with active CMV infection referred to our unit over a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014). Non-primary infection was diagnosed on the basis of the results of confirmatory serological and virological tests (avidity test, immunoblotting, real-time PCR-DNA). The vertical transmission rate and the percentage of symptomatic congenital infection were determined in this group of patients.

Results: A total of 205 pregnant women were enrolled. Congenital infection occurred in 7 (3.4%) fetuses/neonates. Symptomatic disease was present at birth in 3 of the 7 congenitally infected neonates (1.5%). Two out of 3 symptomatic newborns presented a pathologic second-trimester ultrasound scan.

Conclusion: Maternal immunity offers substantial protection against intrauterine transmission of CMV infection, but not against disease once the fetus is infected.

Keywords: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection; Non-primary infection; Ultrasound scan.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Cytomegalovirus* / isolation & purification
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnostic imaging*
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal / trends*