Aims: 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme of leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis and is critically involved in a number of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, gout, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Because 5-LO contains critical nucleophilic amino acids, which are sensitive to electrophilic modifications, we determined the consequences of a drug-mediated intracellular release of nitric oxide (NO) on 5-LO product formation by human granulocytes and on 5-LO-dependent pulmonary inflammation in vivo.
Results: Clinically relevant concentrations of NO-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other agents releasing NO intracellularly suppress 5-LO product synthesis in isolated human granulocytes via direct S-nitrosylation of 5-LO at the catalytically important cysteines 416 and 418. Furthermore, suppression of 5-LO product formation was observed in ionophore-stimulated human whole blood and in an animal model of pulmonary inflammation.
Innovation: Here, we report for the first time that drugs releasing NO intracellularly are efficient 5-LO inhibitors in vitro and in vivo at least equivalent to approved 5-LO inhibitors.
Conclusion: Our findings provide a novel mechanistic strategy for the development of a new class of drugs suppressing LT biosynthesis by site-directed nitrosylation. The results may also help to better understand the well-recognized anti-inflammatory clinically relevant actions of NO-releasing drugs. Furthermore, our study describes in detail a novel molecular mode of action of NO. Rebound Track: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Angel Lanas, Hartmut Kühn, Joan Clària, Orina Belton. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1265-1285.
Keywords: NO-donating NSAIDs; cysteines; nitrosylation; pulmonary inflammation.