Pupal productivity in rainy and dry seasons: findings from the impact survey of a randomised controlled trial of dengue prevention in Guerrero, Mexico

BMC Public Health. 2017 May 30;17(Suppl 1):428. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4294-8.


Background: The follow-up survey of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico included entomological information from the 2012 rainy and dry seasons. We used data from the Mexican arm of the trial to assess the impact of the community action on pupal production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in both rainy and dry seasons.

Methods: Trained field workers inspected household water containers in 90 clusters and collected any pupae or larvae present for entomological examination. We calculated indices of pupae per person and pupae per household, and traditional entomological indices of container index, household index and Breteau index, and compared these between rainy and dry seasons and between intervention and control clusters, using a cluster t-test to test significance of differences.

Results: In 11,933 houses in the rainy season, we inspected 40,323 containers and found 7070 Aedes aegypti pupae. In the dry season, we inspected 43,461 containers and counted 6552 pupae. All pupae and entomological indices were lower in the intervention clusters (IC) than in control clusters (CC) in both the rainy season (RS) and the dry season (DS): pupae per container 0.12 IC and 0.24 CC in RS, and 0.10 IC and 0.20 CC in DS; pupae per household 0.46 IC and 0.82 CC in RS, and 0.41 IC and 0.83 CC in DS; pupae per person 0.11 IC and 0.19 CC in RS, and 0.10 IC and 0.20 CC in DS; household index 16% IC and 21% CC in RS, and 12.1% IC and 17.9% CC in DS; container index 7.5% IC and 11.5% CC in RS, and 4.6% IC and 7.1% CC in DS; Breteau index 27% IC and 36% CC in RS, and 19% IC and 29% CC in DS. All differences between the intervention and control clusters were statistically significant, taking into account clustering.

Conclusions: The trial intervention led to significant decreases in pupal and conventional entomological indices in both rainy and dry seasons.

Trial registration: ISRCTN27581154 .

Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Entomological index; Pupae.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aedes / growth & development*
  • Animals
  • Dengue / prevention & control*
  • Family Characteristics
  • Humans
  • Insect Vectors
  • Larva
  • Mexico
  • Mosquito Control / methods*
  • Pupa*
  • Rain*
  • Seasons*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Water
  • Water Supply*


  • Water

Associated data

  • ISRCTN/ISRCTN27581154