It has been proposed that macrophages could serve as long-lived compartments for HIV-1 infection under in vivo situations because these cells are resistant to the virus-mediated cytopathic effect, produce progeny virus over extended periods of time and are localized in tissues that are often less accessible by treatment. Comprehensive experimental studies are thus needed to characterize the HIV-1-induced modulation of host genes in these myeloid lineage cells. To shed light on this important issue, we performed comparative analyses of mRNA expression levels of host genes in uninfected bystander and HIV-1-infected human macrophages using an infectious reporter virus construct coupled with a large-scale RNA sequencing approach. We observed a rapid differential expression of several host factors in the productively infected macrophage population including genes regulating DNA replication factors and chromatin remodeling. A siRNA-mediated screening study to functionally identify host determinants involved in HIV-1 biology has provided new information on the virus molecular regulation in macrophages.