Background: Changes in lifestyle and obesity in recent decades have brought about a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and allergic diseases. Clinical and epidemiological studies associate obesity with epidemics of allergic diseases. The link between obesity and DM2 with immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation is not yet conclusively established.
Aim: To examine the key immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation in patients with DM2 and their relationship with glycemic control and anthropometric indicators.
Materials and methods: Fifty-five patients with DM2 and 32 healthy controls with normal weight and body mass index (BMI) of 18-24.9 kg/m2 were included in the study. Th2-cytokine profile (serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5, pg/ml) and total serum IgE IU/ml were assessed in all participants in the study using ELISA. In patients with DM2, levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) in the blood were also measured.
Results: Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 are significantly higher in patients with DM2 compared to the control group. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 positively correlated with BMI as well as serum levels of IL-4 with waist circumference. Total serum IgE positively correlated with HbA1c.
Conclusion: Obesity and poor glycemic control in patients with DM2 affect key immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation and possibly alter the immune response to allergens and antigens.
Keywords: Th2 cytokines; type 2 diabetes.