Association between Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity and Key Immunological Components of IgE-mediated Inflammation

Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2017 Jun 1;59(2):159-164. doi: 10.1515/folmed-2017-0021.


Background: Changes in lifestyle and obesity in recent decades have brought about a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and allergic diseases. Clinical and epidemiological studies associate obesity with epidemics of allergic diseases. The link between obesity and DM2 with immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation is not yet conclusively established.

Aim: To examine the key immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation in patients with DM2 and their relationship with glycemic control and anthropometric indicators.

Materials and methods: Fifty-five patients with DM2 and 32 healthy controls with normal weight and body mass index (BMI) of 18-24.9 kg/m2 were included in the study. Th2-cytokine profile (serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5, pg/ml) and total serum IgE IU/ml were assessed in all participants in the study using ELISA. In patients with DM2, levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) in the blood were also measured.

Results: Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 are significantly higher in patients with DM2 compared to the control group. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 positively correlated with BMI as well as serum levels of IL-4 with waist circumference. Total serum IgE positively correlated with HbA1c.

Conclusion: Obesity and poor glycemic control in patients with DM2 affect key immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation and possibly alter the immune response to allergens and antigens.

Keywords: Th2 cytokines; type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood*
  • Immunoglobulin E / immunology
  • Incidence
  • Inflammation / epidemiology*
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Interleukin-4 / blood
  • Interleukin-5 / blood
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / epidemiology*
  • Prognosis
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Assessment


  • Biomarkers
  • Interleukin-5
  • Interleukin-4
  • Immunoglobulin E