Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India

Eur J Cancer Prev. 2018 Nov;27(6):546-552. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000387.


In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural Indian women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis*
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology
  • DNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Early Detection of Cancer / economics
  • Early Detection of Cancer / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India
  • Mass Screening / economics
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Menstrual Hygiene Products / virology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Program Evaluation
  • Rural Population
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


  • DNA, Viral