The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR), preserved or reduced ejection fraction (EF), and ischemic or nonischemic origin with outcomes in patients discharged alive after hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (HF). Of the 4,842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes (ATTEND) registry, 3,357 patients were evaluated to assess the association of FMR, preserved or reduced EF, and ischemic or nonischemic origin with the primary end point (all-cause death and readmission for HF after discharge). At the time of discharge, FMR was assessed semiquantitatively (classified as none, mild, or moderate to severe) by color Doppler analysis of the regurgitant jet area. According to multivariable analysis, in the ischemic group, either mild or moderate to severe FMR in patients with a preserved EF had a significantly higher risk of the primary end point than patients without FMR (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 2.29; p = 0.010 and HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.30 to 3.01; p = 0.001, respectively). In patients with reduced EF with an ischemic origin, only moderate to severe FMR was associated with a significantly higher risk of the primary end point (HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.50; p = 0.014). In the nonischemic group, there was no significant association between FMR and the primary end point in patients with either a preserved or reduced EF. In conclusion, among patients with acute decompensated HF with a preserved or reduced EF, the association of FMR with adverse outcomes may differ between patients who had an ischemic or nonischemic origin of HF.
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