Early volumetric changes after vertical augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with interpositional block graft versus onlay bone graft: A retrospective radiological study

J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017 Sep;45(9):1438-1447. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2017.01.018. Epub 2017 Jan 25.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate volumetric and clinical outcomes of atrophic posterior mandibles treated with inlay or onlay bone grafting techniques.

Materials and methods: In posterior mandibles, alveolar ridges were treated either with interpositional equine cancellous bone block (inlay group) or with onlay autogenous bone block (onlay group). Bone volumes at baseline and at 4 months after surgery were measured by computed tomography.

Results: A total of 20 subjects were enrolled in the present study: 10 in the inlay group and 10 in the onlay group. After surgery, atrophic posterior mandibles showed a mean vertical augmentation height of 6.0 mm in the inlay group and 7.4 mm in the onlay group. No significant differences were recorded between the two groups regarding volume loss of the grafted bone or decrease in vertical bone height of the augmented site (29% and 1.9 mm for the onlay group, and 35% and 1.7 mm for the inlay group) during healing. Two complications (1 wound dehiscence and 1 mandibular fracture) occurred postoperatively in the inlay group; on the other hand, the onlay group had three complications (wound dehiscence). A total of 80 dental implants were placed in augmented areas: 46 in the inlay group with a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 0.8 mm, and 34 in the onlay group with a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 1.3 mm (p = 0.0006).

Conclusions: Inlay xenogeneic grafts showed volumetric bone remodeling similar to that recorded for onlay autogenous bone. The success of the autogenous onlay blocks (82.4%) appeared to be lower than that registered for the inlay group (93.8%), but the difference was not significant.

Keywords: Alveoloplasty; Autologous bone; Bone remodeling; Heterograft; Inlay graft; Posterior mandible.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / surgery*
  • Alveolar Ridge Augmentation / methods*
  • Animals
  • Bone Remodeling
  • Bone Transplantation / methods*
  • Female
  • Heterografts
  • Horses
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Male
  • Mandible / diagnostic imaging
  • Mandible / surgery*
  • Mandibular Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Mandibular Diseases / surgery*
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Smoking
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed