Background & aims: Abdominal distention is produced by abnormal somatic postural tone. We developed an original biofeedback technique based on electromyography-guided control of abdominothoracic muscular activity. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled study to demonstrate the superiority of biofeedback to placebo for the treatment of abdominal distention.
Methods: At a referral center in Spain, we enrolled consecutive patients with visible abdominal distention who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for functional intestinal disorders (47 women, 1 man; 21-74 years old); 2 patients assigned to the placebo group withdrew and 2 patients assigned to biofeedback were not valid for analysis. Abdominothoracic muscle activity was recorded by electromyography. The patients in the biofeedback group were shown the signal and instructed to control muscle activity, whereas patients in the placebo received no instructions and were given oral simethicone. Each patient underwent 3 sessions over a 10-day period. The primary outcomes were subjective sensation of abdominal distention, measured by graphic rating scales for 10 consecutive days before and after the intervention.
Results: Patients in the biofeedback group effectively learned to reduce intercostal activity (by a mean 45% ± 3%), but not patients in the placebo group (reduced by a mean 5% ± 2%; P < .001). Patients in the biofeedback group learned to increase anterior wall muscle activity (by a mean 101% ± 10%), but not in the placebo group (decreased by a mean 4% ± 2%; P < .001). Biofeedback resulted in a 56% ± 1% reduction of abdominal distention (from a mean score of 4.6 ± 0.2 to 2.0 ± 0.2), whereas patients in the placebo group had a reduction of only 13% ± 8% (from a mean score of 4.7 ± 0.1 to 4.1 ± 0.4) (P < .001).
Conclusions: In a randomized trial of patients with a functional intestinal disorder, we found that abdominal distention can be effectively corrected by biofeedback-guided control of abdominothoracic muscular activity, compared with placebo. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT01205100.
Keywords: Abdominal Bloating; Abdominal Muscles; Biofeedback; Diaphragmatic Activity; EMG; Intestinal Gas; Respiratory Function.
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