G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are activated by a diverse range of ligands, from large proteins and proteases to small peptides, metabolites, neurotransmitters and ions. They are expressed on all cells in the body and have key roles in physiology and homeostasis. As such, GPCRs are one of the most important target classes for therapeutic drug discovery. The development of drugs targeting GPCRs has therapeutic value across a wide range of diseases, including cancer, immune and inflammatory disorders as well as neurological and metabolic diseases. The progress made by targeting GPCRs with antibody-based therapeutics, as well as technical hurdles to overcome, are presented and discussed in this Review. Antibody therapeutics targeting C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4), CCR5 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are used as illustrative clinical case studies.