The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of 1,2-decanediol and willow bark extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated keratinocytes

G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2019 Dec;154(6):624-631. doi: 10.23736/S0392-0488.17.05592-4. Epub 2017 Jul 13.


Background: 1,2-Decanediol (S-Mal) is an organic compound belonging to the 1,2-alkanediol family, with two hydroxyl groups located on the first and second carbon of the alkane chain, probably responsible for the enhanced anti-bacterial efficacy. The willow bark total extract (W-Mal) has been used since thousands of years as an herbal remedy for its antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. S-Mal is used in cosmetic preparations, whether W-Mal can be topically or systemically administered. Aim of our study was to evaluate in vitro the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of S-Mal and W-Mal, singularly or in combination, in LPS-stimulated keratinocytes.

Methods: The possible toxic effect of S-Mal and W-Mal was assessed through analysis of cell viability 24 hours after treatment. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities were evaluated by measuring IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1β production as well as cellular antioxidants (GSH and NADPH) consumption, 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after LPS stimulation.

Results: Both substances resulted able to: 1) increase cell viability (P<0.05); 2) decrease the release of inflammatory mediators (IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1β) (P<0.05 - P<0.001); and 3) limit the depletion of cellular antioxidants (GSH and NADPH) (P<0.001).

Conclusions: S-Mal and W-Mal have shown a potential cytoprotective activity when used together, and good anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects when used either singularly or in combination. In light of our results, S-Mal and W-Mal could represent effective and safe options in the management of bacterial-induced or aggravated skin conditions.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Glycols / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Keratinocytes / drug effects*
  • Keratinocytes / pathology
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Bark
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Salix / chemistry*
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Glycols
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • 1,2-decanediol