This study aimed to describe children with moyamoya disease from an international multicenter stroke database, and explore risk factors for stroke recurrence. We reviewed data of children >28-days old with moyamoya disease enrolled in the International Pediatric Stroke Study from January 2003 to March 2013. A total of 174 children from 32 sites and 14 countries had moyamoya disease; median age 7.4 years, 49% male. Of these, 90% presented with ischemic stroke, 7.5% with transient ischemic attack, and 2.5% with hemorrhagic stroke. One-third of patients had moyamoya syndrome. Stroke recurrence was 20% over median follow-up of 13 months; 9% had multiple recurrences. Children treated with surgical revascularization were less likely to have stroke recurrence ( P = .046). Moyamoya disease accounted for 8% of arterial strokes in this international pediatric stroke registry. One-third of pediatric patients with moyamoya disease have an underlying syndromic condition. Surgical revascularization is effective at reducing the incidence of stroke recurrence.
Keywords: children; outcome; pediatric; risk factors; stroke.