Progression of skin autofluorescence of AGEs over 4 years in patients with type 1 diabetes

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2017 Oct;33(7). doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2917. Epub 2017 Sep 5.


Background: The deposit of advanced glycation end-products is involved in diabetic complications. It can be evaluated by measuring the skin autofluorescence (sAF). We searched whether sAF progressed over 4 years in type 1 diabetes and analysed its relationship with the development of nephropathy.

Methods: Two measurements of skin autofluorescence (sAF) were completed on 154 patients during years 2009 and 2013. Baseline factors associated with the progression of sAF were analysed by multivariate regression analysis. The relations among sAF progression, microalbuminuria, and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analysed by logistic regression analysis.

Results: The patients were 51 ± 16 years old, with duration of diabetes of 23 ± 13 years, HbA1c: 7.7 ± 1.0%, 20.7% were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The sAF progressed by +18.1% over 4 years. Two interacting (P = .04) variables were associated with the later progression of sAF: mildly impaired eGFR and treatment by CSII. The patients with mildly impaired eGFR had the highest progression of sAF (+11.5% P = .01). Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was associated with a reduced progression of sAF in patients without kidney impairment (ß = -7.2%, P = .01). A +10% progression of sAF during the follow-up was associated with more microalbuminuria: OR = 1.45, P = .02, and more mildly impaired eGFR (<90 mL/min/1.73 m2 ): OR 1.22, P = .03 at 4 years of follow-up.

Conclusions: The skin autofluorescence of advanced glycation end-products progresses in patients with type 1 diabetes, more if they have diabetic nephropathy, less if they are treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. This progression is associated with the development of nephropathy.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products; diabetes; kidney disease; skin autofluorescence.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Optical Imaging
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin / metabolism*


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin