Rationale: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a cornerstone of treatment for patients with severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where it has been shown to reduce the need for intubation, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Despite high-quality evidence and strong recommendations in clinical guidelines, use of NIV varies widely across hospitals.
Objectives: To identify approaches used by hospitals that have been successful in implementing NIV to treat patients with severe exacerbations of COPD.
Methods: Adopting a positive deviance approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from a sample of high-performing hospitals selected from a large and representative network of 386 U.S. hospitals. High performers were defined as hospitals in which a high proportion of patients with COPD requiring mechanical ventilation were treated with NIV, and that also achieved low risk-adjusted mortality for all patients with COPD. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes and subthemes were identified through iterative readings of the transcripts and discussion until the team agreed that all important themes and subthemes had been identified. All transcripts were coded by three or four researchers. Differences in coding were discussed to negotiate consensus, resulting in a single agreed-on set of coded transcripts.
Results: Interviews were conducted with 32 participants from seven hospitals. Hospitals were diverse regarding size, teaching status, and geographic location. Participants included respiratory therapists (n = 15), physicians (n = 10), and nurses (n = 7). The qualitative analyses revealed three interrelated domains that characterized effective NIV use: processes, structural elements, and contextual factors. Several themes comprised each domain. Key processes included timely identification of appropriate patients, early initiation of NIV, frequent reassessment of patients, and attention to patient comfort. Necessary structural elements included adequate equipment, sufficient numbers of qualified respiratory therapists, and flexibility in staffing. Important contextual factors included provider buy-in, respiratory therapist autonomy, interdisciplinary teamwork, and staff education. Hospital leaders, policies, and protocols were identified as playing a supporting role in promoting essential elements.
Conclusions: We identified factors, such as respiratory therapist autonomy, that facilitated essential processes (e.g., timely initiation) of NIV use at high-performing hospitals. These findings may be useful to hospitals seeking to optimize their use of NIV among patients with COPD.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; health services research; noninvasive ventilation.