Prevalence of Persistent Renal Dysfunction in Perinatally HIV-infected Thai Adolescents

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Jan;37(1):66-70. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001684.


Background: Persistent renal dysfunction (PRD) has been reported in up to 22% of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHAs) in the United States and Europe. There are limited data available on PRD among PHAs in resource-limited settings regarding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at more advanced HIV stages.

Methods: We retrospectively described the prevalence of PRD and associated factors in a Thai PHA cohort. Inclusion criteria were current age ≥10 years old and at least 2 serum creatinine (Cr) measurements after ART initiation. Cr and urine examination were performed every 6-12 months. PRD was defined as having ≥2 measurements of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); either <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or elevated Cr for age and eGFR 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2, or proteinuria (dipstick proteinuria ≥1+). Factors associated with PRD were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: This study included 255 PHAs with median (interquartile range) age of 16.7 (14.5-18.8) and ART duration of 10.3 (7.1-12.4) years. Fifty-six percentage used boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)-based regimens, and 63% used tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The overall PRD prevalence was 14.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1-19.0]; low eGFR 6.7%, proteinuria 3.5% and both 3.9%. Among 109 users of TDF with bPI, 22.9% had PRD and 2.8% discontinued/adjusted dosing of TDF because of nephrotoxicity. Factors associated with PRD were age 10-15 years old (adjusted odd ratio (aOR): 10.1, 95% CI: 4.1-25.2), male (aOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), CD4 nadir <150 cells/mm (aOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.1) and use of TDF with bPI (aOR: 9.6, 95% CI: 3.2-28.9).

Conclusions: PRD is common among PHAs. Almost one-fifth of adolescents using TDF with bPI had PRD. These adolescents should be a priority group for renal monitoring.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Humans
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Tenofovir / therapeutic use
  • Thailand / epidemiology


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Tenofovir
  • Creatinine