Co-creative development of an eHealth nursing intervention: Self-management support for outpatients with cancer pain

Appl Nurs Res. 2017 Aug;36:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2017.03.004. Epub 2017 Mar 21.


Introduction: Co-creative methods, having an iterative character and including different perspectives, allow for the development of complex nursing interventions. Information about the development process is essential in providing justification for the ultimate intervention and crucial in interpreting the outcomes of subsequent evaluations. This paper describes a co-creative method directed towards the development of an eHealth intervention delivered by registered nurses to support self-management in outpatients with cancer pain.

Methods: Intervention development was divided into three consecutive phases (exploration of context, specification of content, organisation of care). In each phase, researchers and technicians addressed five iterative steps: research, ideas, prototyping, evaluation, and documentation. Health professionals and patients were consulted during research and evaluation steps.

Results: Collaboration of researchers, health professionals, patients and technicians was positive and valuable in optimising outcomes. The intervention includes a mobile application for patients and a web application for nurses. Patients are requested to monitor pain, adverse effects and medication intake, while being provided with graphical feedback, education and contact possibilities. Nurses monitor data, advise patients, and collaborate with the treating physician.

Conclusion: Integration of patient self-management and professional care by means of eHealth key into well-known barriers and seem promising in improving cancer pain follow-up. Nurses are able to make substantial contributions because of their expertise, focus on daily living, and their bridging function between patients and health professionals in different care settings. Insights from the intervention development as well as the intervention content give thought for applications in different patients and care settings.

Keywords: Cancer pain; Intervention development; Nursing; Outpatients; Self-management; eHealth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cancer Pain / nursing*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Outpatients
  • Pain Management / methods
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods*
  • Self Care / methods*
  • Self-Management / methods*
  • Telemedicine / organization & administration*