Introduction: Despite improvement in diabetes care over the years, the incidence of macrosomia in type 1 diabetic mothers is still very high and even shows an increasing tendency. It is suggested that other factors that maternal hyperglycemia might be associated with excessive fetal growth in diabetic mothers. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal lipids might contribute to high rates of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM).
Material and methods: This prospective, single-center study was performed in a population of women with T1DM admitted to the perinatal center for women with diabetes. Data were collected in the first trimester (< 12th week), in mid-pregnancy (20th-24th weeks), and before delivery (34th-39th weeks).
Results: Among 114 women included in the analysis, 30 (26.3%) delivered LGA newborns. The remaining 84 (73.7%) newborns were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) HDL concentration in the first trimester was significantly associated with LGA (p = 0.01). Similar associations were observed for the HDL concentrations in mid-pregnancy (p = 0.04) and before delivery (p = 0.03). Higher triglyceride concentrations in the first trimester (p = 0.02) and before delivery (p = 0.008) were associated with LGA. Higher glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in mid-pregnancy and before delivery were associated with LGA. The associations between maternal lipids and LGA were independent of maternal body mass index at onset of the study, gestational weight gain and HbA1c concentrations.
Conclusions: Decreased HDL and increased triglycerides during pregnancy might contribute to the development of LGA in women with type 1 diabetes.
Keywords: fetal weight; large-for-gestational-age; lipids; pregnancy; type 1 diabetes.