Exstrophy Bladder - Reconstruction or Diversion for the Underprivileged

Indian J Pediatr. 2017 Sep;84(9):715-720. doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2419-9. Epub 2017 Jul 18.


The surgical techniques for management of bladder exstrophy epispadias complex have evolved from staged reconstruction, complete primary repair to radical mobilization. Post-operative complications add to the multiplicity of surgical procedures at each step. The end results are variable with many achieving continence rates of 85-89% only after bladder augmentation and clean intermittent catheterization. The situation is further complicated in resource-poor settings, where illiteracy and poverty are the driving factors for choosing a single operative procedure for creation of low pressure reservoir aiming at upper tract preservation and good primary continence. Thus, primary urinary diversion should be offered as a surgical option to patients with limited access to health care facilities. Yogesh's cystorectostomy is a modification of Heitz-Boyer-Hovelacque procedure, wherein the bladder plate is directly anastomosed to the recto-sigmoid pouch, without mobilizing the ureters from their original location. The short-term follow-ups are encouraging with all achieving total urinary continence over the ensuing months. The upper tract functions are well preserved, along with huge parental and patient satisfaction and overall improvement in the quality of life.

Keywords: Bladder exstrophy; Developing countries; Epispadias; Health services accessibility; Urinary incontinence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bladder Exstrophy / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / adverse effects
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder / surgery
  • Urinary Diversion