Presently, the ability to study disease at the most fundamental molecular level has led to a reclassification of human cancers into numerous subtypes that vary in disease progression and response to therapy. Similar to most solid tumors, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variation in histologic and biological features. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer in which the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor are not expressed, and human epidermal growth factor-receptor 2 is not amplified or overexpressed. Data derived from highly complex molecular technologies, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing, have identified gene expression and somatic mutation profile subsets of TNBC that reflect biological behavior more accurately and may lead to further effective therapeutic targets, better prognosis, and improved outcomes. Herein, we review the genomic findings of TNBC and discuss current efforts in precision medicine as they relate to TNBC.
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.